Essay Questions Must use APA citations and short answers of 50 words is okay. 1. What is the significance of malaria worldwide, and what are some recent developments in the battle against the disease? 2. What are the environmental advantages of recycling? 3. List the major components of MSW. 4. Define pollution, pollutant, nonbiodegradable and environment. 5. What are the “dirty dozen” POPs? Whay are they on the list? Multiple Choice 1. If the precautionary principle had been applied to the evidence of the dangerous health effects of smoking tobacco from the 1950s to the 1970s, we would still be waiting for the final word and no government actions would have been taken. ￼ tobacco companies would have been given much more time to research the health effects before any government regulations were passed. ￼ cigarette manufacturers would have been required to demonstrate that smoking was safe and government regulations would have come much earlier. ￼ more tobacco products would have been sold. 2. If the precautionary principle is applied, a pharmaceutical company that discovers a new drug for blood pressure must demonstrate the safety of the drug before it is approved. ￼ the need for the new drug before it is approved. ￼ that the drug is cost-effective before it is approved. ￼ that the drug poses no environmental risks. 3. Examining an old abandoned home several months after a flood, a relief worker suddenly experiences difficulty breathing. At the hospital, she learns that she experiencedAnswer ￼ a chronic respiratory illness more common in the developed world. ￼ a chronic respiratory illness more common in the developing world. ￼ an acute respiratory illness more common in the developed world. ￼ an acute respiratory illness more common in the developing world. 4. Which one of the following has been declining globally over the past several decades?Answer ￼ nitrous oxide levels in the troposphere ￼ methane levels in the troposphere ￼ halocarbon levels in the troposphere ￼ pH of the worlds oceans 5. Which of the following illustrates a risk assessment of climate system change? Answer ￼ using natural gas instead of coal to generate electricity ￼ using solar and nuclear power to generate electricity instead of burning coal ￼ measuring the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere ￼ determining what sorts of crops will be better suited to the new climate 6. Because many places that people build homes are at high risk of a physical disaster, some people have suggested that town zoning boards identify such high risk environments as “stupid zones.” Which one of the following would probably not be located in such a “stupid zone”?Answer ￼ A new home is built in Iowa, about 2 feet above normal water levels and 1,000 feet away from the Mississippi River. ￼ A log cabin home is constructed in a dry, drought-prone, coniferous forest in California. ￼ A new home in South Dakota sits 200 feet up a hillside, overlooking a vast natural prairie. ￼ Along the coast of southern Florida, a retired couple builds their dream home. 7. Which one of the following is not an example of geoengineering?Answer ￼ injecting sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere ￼ erecting large carbon dioxide scrubbers to sequester carbon dioxide in deep reservoirs ￼ seeding the oceans with iron to promote the growth of phytoplankton ￼ erecting large fields of wind turbines to generate electricity to power automobiles 8. One of the greatest risks of diarrheal disease outbreaks in industrialized countries results fromAnswer ￼ poorly trained public health inspectors in the food industry. ￼ contamination in the mass production of food. ￼ the increased demand for organic products. ￼ the addition of preservatives in foods 9. Secondary air pollutants are formed byAnswer ￼ the evaporation of solvents and gasoline. ￼ the incomplete combustion of fuels. ￼ primary pollutants reacting with other compounds in the atmosphere. ￼ radioactive substances such as radon reacting with primary pollutants. 10. Which one of the following generally increases the pollution of the air?Answer ￼ bright sunlight ￼ generation of hydroxyl radicals ￼ sea salt aerosols entering the air over an ocean ￼ gases released by a volcanic eruption 11. On average in the United States, every day each person produces aboutAnswer ￼ 10-20 gallons of wastewater containing about a gallon of waste. ￼ 50-100 gallons of wastewater containing about three gallons of waste. ￼ 150-200 gallons of wastewater containing less than a half gallon of waste. ￼ 300-400 gallons of wastewater containing about 10 gallons of waste. 12. Air pollution in a heavily industrialized region would be reduced and the air would be healthier if that region Answer ￼ received less rain. ￼ received less sunshine. ￼ were next to an ocean. ￼ used more coal to generate electricity. 13. Duckweed is a small, flowering plant that floats at the water’s surface. It tends to grow best when nutrient levels are high. When duckweed is abundant, it forms tight mats that cover the surface of ponds and lakes.Consider a situation in which spring storms bring an influx of water and nutrients into a small 4-acre pond, and duckweed populations suddenly explode. Duckweed covers the surface of the pond, but is regularly washed over the spillway and replaced by the growth of new duckweed plants.Use the paragraph above to answer the following questions.In this pond, experiencing cultural eutrophication, the growth of this duckweed willAnswer ￼ add nutrients to the pond and encourage the growth of phytoplankton. ￼ remove nutrients from the pond and encourage the growth of phytoplankton. ￼ add nutrients to the pond and slow the growth of phytoplankton. ￼ remove nutrients from the pond and slow the growth of phytoplankton. 14. In developed countries, nonrecycled municipal solid waste (MSW) is more likely to beAnswer ￼ burned when the population densities are high. ￼ burned when the population densities are low. ￼ buried when the population densities are high. ￼ buried when the population is located near an ocean. 15. Lakes in the Midwestern United States that experience sustained acid precipitation over hundreds of years will graduallyAnswer ￼ increase their pH because of the buffering effects of limestone. ￼ increase their pH because of the depletion of the buffering effects of limestone. ￼ decrease their pH because of the buffering effects of limestone. ￼ decrease their pH because of the depletion of the buffering effects of limestone. 16. Small urban gardens in vacant lots and on rooftops are increasing in number. These gardensAnswer ￼ are able to make most cities agriculturally self-sufficient. ￼ recycle most of the compost generated by the city’s sewage treatment facilities. ￼ are able to recapture most of the carbon dioxide in the city, making the cities carbon neutral. ￼ recycle compost, create jobs for unskilled workers, and provide limited amounts of fresh produce. 17. As a result of the lessons learned from the 1984 Bhopal, India, disaster, the 1986 EPCRA requiresAnswer ￼ all companies handling toxic wastes to be located at least one mile from any city border. ￼ emergency response teams in every company that makes a product in the United States. ￼ companies that handle more than 5 tons of hazardous materials to provide detailed information to local emergency planning committees. ￼ All of the responses are correct. 18. Lingering in a long line at the dry cleaners, waiting for holiday clothing, a woman starts to feel dizzy and tired with a quickly developing headache. Someone suggests that her symptoms might be from breathing something used in the shop. A substance that can cause such symptoms, and is commonly used in dry cleaning, is aAnswer ￼ heavy metal. ￼ halogenated hydrocarbon. ￼ radioactive hydrocarbon. ￼ safe and gentle natural compound. 19. New REACH Regulations approved by the European Union change the way chemical safety is determined. Unlike the United States approach, the Reach Regulations require that the safety of these chemicals is the obligation ofAnswer ￼ industry and not the federal government. ￼ the consumer and not the federal government. ￼ the federal government and not the industry. ￼ cities and states and not the industry. 20. Urban sprawl has resulted inAnswer ￼ wildlife habitat fragmentation. ￼ decreased reliance on fossil fuels. ￼ decreased production of greenhouse gases. ￼ increased dependence on family farms for food. 21. High crime rates in U.S. cities are generally the result ofAnswer ￼ high population densities. ￼ higher levels of education. ￼ poor social conditions. ￼ the lack of public transportation. 22. In January 2010, three California Condors died when they accidentally ate lead ammunition used to kill the animals they were consuming. The California Condors’ deaths represent an example ofAnswer ￼ acute toxic effects of consuming high levels of lead. ￼ chronic toxic effects of lead resulting from biomagnification. ￼ chronic toxic effects of lead resulting from bioaccumulation. ￼ chronic toxic effects of lead resulting from biomagnification and bioaccumulation. 23. Consider a comparison of people living well in densely populated cities versus people living well in less dense suburbs. For the people living in the cities, it isAnswer ￼ less expensive to provide social services and utilities and impacts the environment less. ￼ less expensive to provide social services and utilities but impacts the environment more. ￼ more expensive to provide social services and utilities and impacts the environment more. ￼ more expensive to provide social services and utilities but impacts the environment less. 3 points ￼ Question 30 24. The safe movement of hazardous materials by rail or highway in the United States is regulated byAnswer ￼ individual states and cities. ￼ the Department of Transportation. ￼ the regulations of the RCRA. ￼ the Justice Department.